May 22nd, 1872
Congress Restores Confederates' Rights with the Amnesty Act of 1872
Even while the Civil War was in progress, the Union offered amnesty to Confederates in an attempt to encourage loyalty to the Union and begin the process of reconstruction. The Confiscation Act of 1862 authorized the President of the United States to pardon anyone involved in the rebellion. The Amnesty Proclamation of December 8, 1863, offered pardons to those who had not held a Confederate civil office, had not mistreated Union prisoners, and would sign an oath of allegiance. Another limited amnesty that targeted Southern civilians went into effect on May 26, 1864.
On May 29, 1865, President Andrew Johnson provided for amnesty and the return of property to those who would take an oath of allegiance. Former high-ranking Confederate government and military officials, and people owning more than $20,000 worth of property, had to apply for individual pardons.
Passed by Congress and signed by President Ulysses Grant on May 22, 1872, the Amnesty Act of 1872 ended voting restrictions and office-holding disqualifications against most of the Confederate troops and secessionists who rebelled against the Union in the Civil War. The act conferred these rights to over 150,000 former Confederate troops with the exception of some 500 military leaders of the Confederacy.